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Garden Shredders: Turn Green Waste into Potting Media and Mulch

Turn green waste into potting media and mulch, That’s one of the most environmentally friendly ways of handling green waste. It means that you can turn those robes into useful potting Media or perhaps even mulch. They have a multitude of uses in the garden and absolutely a means that there’s zero waste and it’s a very environmentally friendly thing to do. If you’re a bit of a greenfinger garden I like me and you really like to make sure that you’re looking after the environment in the process then absolutely getting a garden shredders going to help you to deal with a lot of green waste and at the same time you’ll be able to get a decent bit of potting Media out of it too.

From my perspective there’s nothing better than using the resources available in your garden already and the fact that you have to clear them as well means that it’s a double win because you solve a problem, as well as make a bit of a benefit in the process. If I were going to buy or have any item in my garden it will be a garden shredder so that I definitely get through the waste and shrubs and don’t cause myself any need to go to the tip or perhaps throw items out that would otherwise end up in the green recycle bin for example.

Garden Shredders

Garden Shredders

We can all be guilty of burning or shrubs because they’re actually quite difficult to deal with. They also don’t decompose very well when they don’t really turned into compost unless they’re actually turned into mole first. So having a garden shredder means we don’t have to start garden fires to clear rubbish so often either. I’m going to try and go through some of the absolute best garden shredders and the cheapest possible prices you can get them for on the internet today. So without further ado let’s get started on the best garden shredders.

Bosch Shredder AXT Rapid 2200 (2200 W, 230 Volt System, Cutting Capacity 40 mm, in Carton)

When you think of Bosch you know that means quality in the garden. It means that you are going to get a high performing and well-built piece of machinery. The Bosch shredder ATX rapid 2200 is absolutely no exception to the rule. It doesn’t do anything but perform with high power and integrity. It has an incredible ability to cut 40mm thick shrub work which means that almost anything in your garden is going to be put through this machine no problem at all. It’s not like your average 2200 watt 40mm cut machine, it’s a real deal that will actually do what it says on the tin pay. Bosch provide you with that reliability that other brands won’t.

Bosch Shredder AXT Rapid 2200

Bosch Shredder AXT Rapid 2200

I bought my Bosch Shredder AXT Rapid 2200 on the link provided no I was super happy that I did too because it was the cheapest price on the internet at the time and as well as that I got extremely quick delivery and they also showed me how to set the item I wanted up right. They also told me how to operate things safely and that’s important because it could be extremely dangerous and you could lose your fingers if you’re not operating it carefully or correctly. Personally, I was actually very pleased I made my purchase with them and they showed me how to feed the wood into the machine without causing myself any injury too.

One thing that really struck me about the Bosch Shredder AXT Rapid 2200 was just how to find the mulch could be set to. Basically what it means is that the wooden trucks would have a very easy chance of decomposing very quickly which would provide me with high quality potting Media in no time at all.
So that means I get the choice between having potting meteor or mulch and it’s completely up to me. The only thing I would say about this machine is potentially not that great is the fact that little pretty expensive but then what you spend you get back in quality so you one has to accept that you get what you pay for that’s the world these days.

Bosch Shredder AXT Rapid 2200

Bosch Shredder AXT Rapid 2200

This garden shredder has one of the most amazing size hoppers you can possibly imagine in the size category it’s in. If you think about what grade and sizes machine is, the hopper is absolutely huge. That means you can put a load of shrubs and rubbish to the top and it will all turn to mulch hassle free after you’ve just popped in and you can forget about it for a while. I absolutely recommend this machine if you’ve got the money in the budget for it.

In conclusion if you got the budget for it a Bosch garden shredder is the way to go and I absolutely assure you, there won’t be a problem with the selection.

Tips for understanding shade

It may be the question most often asked by unhappy gardeners: “My yard is nothing but shade. What can I possibly do? Help!”

The hint of desperation in their tone is born from the mistaken belief that a shady yard—or a shady corner of a yard—is doomed to never hold a garden. In fact, a garden with light or dappled shade has an absolute wealth of plant choices available. Yards with medium to deep shade may face a somewhat more limited selection, but there are still plenty of plants from which to choose. It’s a rare spot that has so much shade that no ornamental plant will grow. Best of all, many plants will also bloom in a shady corner, and it’s the flowers that count for many gardeners.

That said, to find those shade-loving plants that will work best in your own “problem spot,” keep these factors in mind:

First, all shade is not created equal. At its simplest, shade falls into one of four categories: Light or partial shade is present when plants receive filtered but not direct sun or when areas get direct sun for only a couple of hours in early morning or late afternoon. This shade is where most shade-lovers do best. Darker-coloured plants tend to show off to best advantage here, too.

With full shade, plants receive no direct sun during the day but they do receive “reflected light.” This type of shade might be found under the canopy of a mature tree, or at the base of a north-facing wall. Some shade lovers that thrive in partial shade will also grow in full shade, but bloom time or plant size may be affected.

Deep shade is usually characterised by a continuous “dusk-like” quality, even during the height of day. Unfortunately, this is one of the most difficult areas in which to grow plants successfully. Heavy shade is an area that gets almost no direct light (under a low deck, for example). Very little will grow here successfully.

Second, if your shade is caused by trees or shrubs directly above where you wish to plant, be aware that research has shown that most of a tree’s root system exists in the top 2 feet of soil. That means that you would not only have to dig through these feeder roots to plant a shade garden (which will probably both stress your tree and aggravate you), any plants located there would have to compete with the tree for water and nutrients. Because the root system on a tree is so large, the tree is usually the winner in this sort of competition. Try to locate your garden as far away from the main trunks of any large tree as you can to avoid these problems. Since many shade plants enjoy the filtered light provided by tree canopies, you’re still in luck if you garden near trees.

Third, the sad truth is that almost all vegetables and even most herbs are sun-lovers. Very few do their best in a shady location. If your heart is set on raising veggies but your perfect garden site doesn’t get full sun, try planting bush varieties in containers and place the pots wherever you do get at least eight hours of sun, even if that means plopping a few pots on the front steps. As an alternative, you may find that most leafy vegetables (lettuce and the like) will tolerate more shade than other veggies.

So with tips in mind, check out a few of our favourite shady characters:

Dicentra spp.

(Light to medium shade)
A must-have for the shade garden, bleeding hearts offer fine-textured, ferny foliage and delicate, intriguing flowers. There are several different types—the old-fashioned bleeding heart has large flowers but it unfortunately goes dormant by midsummer. The fern-leafed types have smaller flowers but do bloom through the season.

The old-fashioned bleeding heart, D. spectabilis, grows to 5 feet and has chains of pink or white flowers. There are a number of fern-leafed types, in-cluding the cultivars ‘Bountiful’, which has pink flowers, ‘Bacchanal’, which blooms red, and ‘Aurora’, which is white. Also, in milder parts of the country, look for the yellow bleeding heart—D. scandens—a vine hardy in Zones 6 to 8.

Phlox spp.

(Light to medium shade)
Woodland phlox (P. divaricata) is native to woodland areas of North America. The plant stays small—reaching only a foot or so tall—and has lovely lavender-blue flowers in spring. It’s a great companion for other spring-blooming ground covers such as forget-me-nots.

There are a number of cultivars of woodland phlox available with flowers in shades of blue, lilac-blue, and nearly white.

Pulmonaria spp.

(Light shade)
Also known as lungworts, this group of plants with elegant silvery spotting on their leaves is one of my favourites for the border. Most have lovely blue flowers in early spring that soften to pink and last a surprisingly long time. After the flowers fade, you’re left with the wonderful variegated foliage that stays attractive through the rest of the season.

Convallaria spp.

(Light to heavy shade)
Commonly known as lily-of-the-valley, this old-fashioned perennial is one of the hardiest plants in the shade garden. Established clumps can go on for years with virtually no care. In spring, lily-of-the-valley sends up small shoots with white, bell-shaped flowers that are wonderfully fragrant. Lily-of-the-valley foliage is very attractive—the leaves are blue-green and oval-shaped. For a twist on the lily-of-the-valley, look for the cultivars ‘Rosea’, which has pink flowers, or ‘Albostriata’, which has white-striped leaves.

Two quick cautions here: Lily-of-the-valley can be aggressive, and must be watched carefully to keep it from overgrowing its location. All parts of the plant are also poisonous.

Tricyrtis spp.

(Light to medium shade)
Toad lilies are a late-blooming, overlooked shade plant. These perennials are good for adding height—they often stretch up to 3 feet tall in the garden. Their flowers, though somewhat lily-like, are often curiously spotted with purple, for an exotic look.

A number of cultivars are available that bloom in shades of purple, white, and even yellow. ‘Variegata’ has variegated foliage.

Helleborus spp.

(Light to medium shade)
Hellebores are often the first perennial to bloom in many gardens. If you look closely, you might see this plant’s resemblance to its cousins—the columbine and clematis. Hellebores have dark-green, leathery foliage that is evergreen in many areas. The flowers generally appear in shades of white, pink, green, and red, often before the snow has melted.

One of the hardiest species is H. orientalis, the Lenten rose. Another common hellebore is, the Christmas rose. Both are hardy to Zone 4. Hellebores are also poisonous.

Digitalis spp.

(Light to medium shade)
Another old-fashioned favourite, foxgloves have spikes of showy flowers in a range of colours from white to purple. The most common species, D. purpurea, is a biennial that self-seeds happily in many gardens, giving it the appearance of being a perennial.

Other perennial species of foxglove include D. grandiflora and D. lutea, both of which have yellow flowers and are hardy to Zone 3, and D. x mertonensis, which flowers pink.

Browallia spp.

(Light to medium shade)
This lovely annual, Browallia speciosa, bears many star-shaped blue flowers in summer and has appealing foliage. Browallias make great mates for some of the cooler-coloured impatiens, or stand well by themselves. The plants also perform well in baskets and containers. (For a stunning combination, combine them in containers with impatiens and trailing lobelia.)

Akebia spp.

(Light shade)
A relatively unknown vine, Akebia quinata (sometimes called chocolate vine on account of its fragrant flowers) has attractive foliage that may remind you of a tiny tropical umbrella tree. These hardy vines can become large—to 30 feet—and may engulf smaller structures in the garden if they’re not firmly anchored. Akebias bloom in early spring with purplish flower clusters that are commonly hidden by the foliage. These flowers give way to edible fruits.

Another species, A. trifoliata, is much like its cousin except it has leaves divided into three leaflets instead of five.

Cimicifuga spp.

(Light to medium shade)
Also known as bugbane, cimicifuga is a taller, late-blooming shade-garden gem that sends up spikes of white flowers. Some bugbanes have blooms that smell somewhat unpleasant; be sure not to plant these near your fragrant shade plants. When not in bloom, the plants have attractive astilbe-like foliage that in some cultivars is deep purplish-green.

Some of the purple-leafed cultivars are ‘Atropurpurea’ and ‘Brunette’. Both have plumes of white flowers and grow to about 4 feet.

Campanula spp.

(Light shade)
A large group of plants, campanulas (also known as bellflowers) have cup-like flowers in shades of blue or white. While not every campanula is well suited to the shade garden, low-growing C. poscharskyana, and its cousin C. medium, the biennial Canterbury bells, are both shade tolerant.

Aconitum spp.

(Light shade)
A relative of the delphinium, wolfsbane or monkshood (Aconitum spp.) has beautiful blue flowers and divided foliage. These flowers bloom in late summer or autumn, adding colour when the garden is short of blue flowers. The wind may tip over monkshood flower stalks if they are not planted in a protected spot. Stake the flowers to prevent this. Some well-known cultivars include ‘Bressingham Spire’, which has dark violet flowers, and ‘Bicolour’, with both blue and white flowers. (Note: Monkshoods are poisonous.)

Corydalis spp.

(Light to medium shade)
A group of plants related to the bleeding heart, most species of corydalis have beautiful, ferny foliage and clusters of flowers in shades of yellow, white, pink, red, purple, and blue. I’ve found C. lutea is one of the easiest shade-garden plants—it self-seeds in many gardens and blooms all season long, adding cheerful yellow flowers to the shady border.

Another corydalis that’s gotten a lot of attention is C. flexuosa—which has fragrant blue flowers in spring and sometimes again in autumn. It’s hardy in Zones 6 to 8.

Astilbe spp.

(Light to medium shade)
Must-haves for the moist shade garden, astilbes send up beautiful, feathery plumes in summer. The blooms range in colour from red to pink on into white and lavender. Height ranges from less than a foot to more than 5 feet tall. In addition to their attractive flowers, astilbes have divided foliage that’s often infused with reddish or bronzy tones.

Some nice cultivars include ‘Fanal’, with dark-red flowers, ‘Deutschland’, with white flowers, and ‘Rheinland’, with pink flowers.

Aquilegia spp.

(Light or medium shade)
Few plants are as graceful and distinct as the columbine. These relatives of monkshood and clematis bear odd, spurred flowers in summer. Their flowers appear in almost every shade, including white, black, and bi-colours. In addition, columbines have attractive fan-shaped foliage. Columbines are famous for self-seeding in the garden, though the seedlings from hybrids rarely look like their parents.

A. canadensis is a native columbine with red and yellow flowers. A. flabellata, the fan columbine, is a dwarf species with rich blue flowers and especially attractive blue-green foliage.

Liriope spp.

(Light to heavy shade)
When it’s not in bloom, some gardeners mistake lilyturf for an ornamental grass with its dark-green, grassy foliage. Spikes of purple or lavender flowers appear in summer. One of the best choices for highly shaded areas, liriope withstands a wide range of difficult conditions, including heat and drought.

Some white-flowering cultivars—including ‘Monroe White’, and some cultivars with variegated foliage (‘Variegata’), are particularly nice.

Geranium spp.

(Light shade)
True geraniums, not to be confused with their annual cousins (pelargoniums), are often overlooked in the shade garden. Most have attractive divided foliage and bloom in a wide range of colours—from nearly black to white. Some are ground covers, while others grow up to 2 feet.

One especially well-known cultivar is ‘Johnson’s Blue’, named for its blue summer flowers. One of the longest-blooming species is G. sanguineum, which also has foliage that turns colour in autumn.

Iris spp.

(Light shade)
While many gardeners are most familiar with the showy, fragrant flowers of tall bearded irises, some gems in this group native to woodlands are wonderful additions to the shade garden. Siberian irises, I. siberica, can take a small amount of shade, as well, especially in hot climates.

Myosotis spp.

(Light to medium shade)
Forget-me-not is a prized ground cover in the shade and it has flowers in a rare shade of blue. A biennial, this plant self-seeds readily in many gardens and can become a pest if left unchecked. Given that, it’s still well worth growing for its lovely springtime flowers. For added variety, look for white- and pink-flowering cultivars such as ‘Snowball’ or ‘Victoria Rose’.

Primula spp.

(Light shade)
Primroses lend an English garden feeling to any area with their clusters of colourful flowers and flat, hairy leaves. Several hundred different species of these plants exist, and hundreds of hybrids on top of that; the colour range is nearly endless. Many of the shade-loving species prefer a slightly acidic soil that has plenty of organic matter. The flower typically known as the “florist’s primrose” can be grown outside. Primroses like cooler summers and may not do well in areas where temperatures rise dramatically.

Trillium spp.

(Light to medium shade)
Sometimes called wakerobins for their very early bloom time, trilliums are woodland plants with three showy petals in shades of red, white, and yellow. The plants send up three leaves in the spring—and these are the only leaves the plants have for the season. White-flowered T. grandiflorum is the most common garden trillium.

Aristolochia spp.

(Light shade)
Calico flower produces one of the most distinctive flowers in the shade garden. These vines usually have heart-shaped foliage and pipe-shaped flowers in shades of white, green, and purple. The plants can become quite large—place them well to prevent any structures from collapsing. The hardiest type, A. macrophylla, has dark-green, heart-shaped leaves and small greenish flowers that often hide in the foliage.

Loosestrifes range from ground covers to upright perennials.

Loosestrifes range from ground covers to upright perennials. Many make good cut flowers. Most types have clusters of yellow or white flowers arranged in tall spikes.

Plant facts

  • Common name: Loosestrife
  • Botanical name: Lysimachia spp.
  • Zones: 3 to 9, depending on species
  • Height: To 4 feet tall, depending on species
  • From: Areas of Europe, Asia, and North America
  • Family: Primulaceae (primrose family)

Growing conditions

  • Sun: Full sun or partial shade
  • Soil: Moist, well-drained soils are best, but the plants adapt to many types of moist soil.
  • Moisture: Keep soil evenly moist.


  • Mulch: A layer of mulch around the base of the plant will help keep weeds at bay. Mulch also helps conserve moisture and keeps soil temperatures consistent.
  • Pruning: Cut plants back in autumn after they freeze or in spring before they begin to grow.
  • Fertiliser: In average soil, no fertiliser is necessary.
  • Propagation
  • Division: Divide loosestrifes in spring or autumn.


  • Leaf spot: In summer or autumn, leaves develop yellow to brown spots, often with concentric rings that form a bull’s-eye pattern. To deter leaf spot, prune the plant to allow good airflow and avoid wetting the foliage in afternoons and evenings.

Garden notes

  • While not aggressive weeds, some loosestrifes can grow quickly in the garden. Root guards may help prevent spreading; leave some space between loosestrifes and plants that don’t grow as quickly.
  • Don’t confuse these loosestrifes (Lysimachia spp.) with the invasive purple loosestrife (Lythrum spp.).


  • Lysimachia ciliata: Grows to 4 feet tall with yellow flowers in summer. This species can get quite aggressive. Zones 3 to 9. Native to areas of North America.
  • Lysimachia clethroides: Grows to 3 feet tall with spikes of white flowers in summer. This species can get quite aggressive. Good for cutting. Zones 4 to 9.
  • Lysimachia clethroides ‘Geisha’: Grows to 3 feet tall with leaves edged in creamy yellow and spikes of summer-blooming white flowers. Grows much slower than the species. Good for cutting. Zones 4 to 9.
  • Lysimachia nummularia: Aggressive ground cover with yellow flowers in summer. Grows to 4 inches tall. Zones 4 to 8.
  • Lysimachia punctata: Grows to 3 feet tall with spikes of yellow flowers in summer. This species can get quite aggressive. Zones 3 to 9.
  • Lysimachia punctata ‘Alexander’: This selection grows to 3 feet tall with leaves edged in white and spikes of summer-blooming yellow flowers. Grows slower than the species. Zones 3 to 9.


Even if you don’t live in a region where wisteria is hardy, you’re probably familiar with these lovely fast-growing vines. The plants are known for their hanging clusters of pink, purple, white, or blue pea like flowers. Flowers are fragrant and give way to pods of seeds.

Plant facts

Common name: Wisteria
Botanical name: Wisteria spp.
Zones: 4 to 9, depending on species
Size: Climb to 30 feet or more
From: Areas of Asia and North America, depending on species
Family: Fabaceae, the pea family

Growing conditions

Sun: Plant wisteria in full sun with at least 6 hours of direct sun each day.

Soil: The soil must remain moist and well drained. If soil is high in sand or clay, amend it with organic matter before planting. The more organic matter, the better.

Moisture: Water wisteria in times of drought.


Mulch: Place a layer of mulch around the base of the plant to keep weeds at bay, conserve moisture, and maintain consistent soil temperatures. Leave a 4-inch gap between the mulch and the wisteria’s trunk.

Pruning: Pruning keeps these large vines in check. To encourage flowering shoots, cut the newest side shoots back about 6 inches from the main branch in midsummer. In winter, prune the regrowth back to about three nodes (leaves) from their main branch. This will help encourage the growth of flowering shoots in spring.

Fertiliser: In average soil, wisteria doesn’t require fertilisation. Too much fertiliser can inhibit blooms.

Support: These vines need a sturdy structure for support because they can easily reach 30 feet or more.


Seed: Soak seeds in warm water for 24 to 36 hours. Plant them outdoors in a sheltered spot in the garden or in a moist seed-starting mix. Germination can take a month or more. Wisteria started from seed can take many years to bloom and may be inferior plants compared to cultivars.

Cuttings: Take softwood cuttings in spring or early summer. Cuttings root in about eight weeks.

Layering: Bend one of the growing shoots toward the ground in early spring. Remove the leaves along a section of the stem, gently nick the stem in that area, then bury that section under several inches of soil. Anchor the shoot to the ground. The stem should root in about a year. After it roots, cut it from the mother plant.


Aphids: These small insects often appear in large numbers on new growth. Spray them off daily with a stream of water; they will not attack a plant after being knocked off. Use an insecticidal soap or neem-oil spray if infestations are severe.

Japanese beetles: These large, dark-coloured beetles chew holes in leaves. If infestations are severe, try an insecticide made from neem. Immature Japanese beetles are white grubs that eat plant roots. To reduce the number of grubs, use a grub killer or a bacterium called milky spore.

Leaf-miners: Leaf-miners are small flies. Their larvae burrow tunnels in plant leaves. In most cases, the damage affects only the look of the plant, not the plant’s health. Remove and destroy any infected leaves. Keep a layer of mulch around the plant to help prevent leaf-miners from burrowing into the soil, where they pupate and become adult flies.

Scale insects: Scale insects look like tiny disks on plant stems or roots. They suck juices from plant cells. Encourage beneficial insects, such as wasps, or use horticultural oil.

Viruses: A few viruses can infect wisteria. They often cause a decrease in vigour, malformed new growth, and a mosaic pattern of discolouration on leaves. Unfortunately, once a plant is infected with a virus, there’s no saving it-it’s best to destroy the plant.

Fungal disease: Fungal diseases occur when the plant is in a spot that’s too wet. Once a plant is infected with a fungal disease, there’s little you can do to stop the disease. To prevent fungal diseases, prune vines to encourage good airflow, plant wisteria in well-drained soil, and keep the foliage dry. Prune infected leaves or branches to help keep the disease from spreading. Destroy any infected leaves that fall to the ground.

Leaf spot: Many leaf spotting diseases appear as discoloured spots on leaf surfaces made up of concentric circles, forming a tiny bull’s-eye pattern.
Powdery mildew: This disease first appears as discoloured spots on plant leaves. As it progresses, the leaves become covered with a grey powder and drop off.

Garden notes

• Most parts of the wisteria plant, especially the seeds, are poisonous to people and animals.
• Some types of wisteria (Wisteria floribunda and W. sinensis) are considered invasive in certain parts of the country. Check with local authorities before planting a wisteria.
• Wisteria vines cannot climb walls-they need an arbor, trellis, flagpole, or similar structure for support.

Some gardeners try to train their wisterias as standards, or trees. This takes intensive pruning, as well as a very sturdy stake for the vine’s “trunk.”

Soil Test & Seed Starter

How you use water effectively has a lot to do with what kind of soil you have: clay, sand, loam, or something in between (like clay loam, silty clay, loamy sand, etc). To find out, grab a quart jar and a shovel and follow the steps below.

Just add water

Fill a quart-sized glass jar (a recycled mayo bottle works well) about halfway with soil from your garden. Add water until the jar is nearly full. Give it a really good shake—there should be no clumps left. Now, put the jar on a level surface where it can remain undisturbed for 24 hours. You’ll want some light for this part, so don’t tuck it into a dark corner.

Wait and watch

Sand will be the first ingredient to drop to the bottom. This doesn’t take long—just a few minutes. Make a mark on the jar at the top of the sand. Silt particles will sink next. This takes several hours. Again, make a mark on the jar. Leave it alone overnight before you check for clay. The water may still be cloudy, but you’re ready to mark the level of clay in your soil.

What it means

To make sense of the info in the jar, estimate a percentage for each layer. Next, visit the soil-type triangle. At first glance, this resembles the Bermuda triangle—complex and indecipherable. It is not. Just follow the directions and you’ll find it’s surprisingly simple.

Now what?

Now that you know how much sand, silt, and clay is in your soil, you have two choices. You can amend your soil or learn to love plants that grow in your soil type. To amend either clay or sandy soil, work in plenty of composted organic matter. Your plants will thank you.

Starting seeds

If you want unique annuals and vegetables in your garden this season, now is the time to shop for seeds at garden centres or mail order companies. Here are three methods of starting seeds indoors:

Containers from home. Sow seeds in plastic cups, margarine tubs, or yogurt cups with holes punched in the bottoms to drain excess moisture. Put containers on a waterproof tray. Cover with plastic wrap and keep out of direct sun until seeds germinate.

Peat pellets. Drop compressed pellets into warm water until they expand. Plant seeds in the expanded pellets and place in tray with plastic dome. When seedlings emerge, remove the plastic dome. As seedlings and roots mature, plant pellets in a pot or in the ground.

Self-watering seed starter.

Kit includes a seed tray, capillary mat, growing stand, and water reservoir with a clear cover. Some also include markers, fertiliser, soil, and water indicators. The capillary mat provides even bottom watering by wicking water from the reservoir. There’s enough water in the reservoir to keep seedlings moist for about five days.


º Use a sterilised, soilless mix to discourage soil-borne fungal diseases.
º Moisten medium before putting into containers.
º Place a fluorescent bulb 3 to 4 inches above seedlings to provide enough light. (Incandescent lights give off too much heat.)
º Water seedlings from the bottom to discourage damping off.
º Fertilise seedlings once they have some true leaves.